Mango Tree– What is it?
Hose is Mango tree, produces the mango that is harvested in late spring and summer, with some varieties bearing fruit twice a year. Edible fruits, ornamental tree and shade producer.
The fruits can be consumed “in natura” or in ice creams and sweets. Mango is a popular tropical fruit eaten in both sweet and savory dishes around the world. It can be green, yellow, orange, red or a combination of these colors, and has yellow or orange flesh surrounding a flat, hard core.
The fruit is normally peeled and pitted before use. A mango can be eaten raw, green or ripe, jams, ice cream, juices, raisins and liquors, or cooked in desserts. Mango is a tropical fruit from the drupe family.
This means they have a single large seed in the middle. Sometimes called the “king of fruits”, mangoes are one of the most consumed fruits in the world.
The mango trees adapted very well to the places where they were taken, for climatic reasons: they need a lot of heat to develop properly and, in a way, to produce their fruits.
It is also the largest fruit tree in the world, measuring from 1 to 100 meters in height, and having a circumference of up to 20 feet, in more abundant cases. The radius of the canopy is also something that draws a lot of attention: it reaches up to 10 meters.
When young, mango trees are identified by their broad, evergreen leaves, each 16 centimeters wide. In the same tree it is also possible to find the flowers that serve for the inflorescence.
These are scented and tiny. The size of the mango canopy, usually very large, is considered one of the main obstacles to its cultivation on a large scale, which prevents the use of dense spacing.
Hose – Tree Mango trees grow to be very large trees. In height, a hose can reach 35-40 meters with a span of 10 meters at the top. The new leaves are almost salmon in color, which quickly changes to a deep, glossy red, and then to a dark green as they mature.
When the small white flowers emerge, they give off a mild, sweet scent, suggestive of lily of the valley. After the flowers fall, the fruits can take three to six months to mature.
The mango, when fully ripe, hangs from the tree on long stems. They are variable in size, from 10-25 cm in length and 7-12 cm in diameter, and can weigh up to 2.5 kg. The fruits come in a variety of colors: green, yellow, red or various combinations of these colors.
When ripe, the unpeeled fruit exudes a characteristic, slightly sweet smell. In the center of the fruit (a drupe) is a single, oblong seed that may be fibrous or hairless on the surface, depending on the variety.
Inside the shell, which is 1-2 mm thick, is a paper-thin lining covering a single seed, 4-7 cm long, 3-4 cm wide and 1 cm thick. The fruit pulp of a ripe mango contains about 15% sugar, up to 1% protein and significant amounts of vitamins A, B and C.
The fruit flavor is very sweet, with some varieties having a slight acid aftertaste.
The pulp texture varies markedly between different cultivars, some have a very soft and pulpy texture similar to a ripe plum, others have a firmer pulp, much like that of a melon or avacado, and in some cultivars the pulp may contain material fibers.
Mango is a very juicy fruit; the sweet taste and high water content make them refreshing to eat, however the juice can make eating them a bit tricky.
Hose – Curiosities The hose was widely disseminated in the city of Belém at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, which is why it became known as the “city of hoses” and the local culture nicknamed its football stadium
Today there is a lot of discussion about the convenience of its planting, since most of the streets are paved with asphalted hoses and cement paving causing reciprocal problems between the root system of the trees and the aforementioned paving.
In addition to the fact that the change of the city, with the Brazilian industrial progress and consequent number of cars, can cause damage or accidents when the fruits fall.
Hose – Origin The mango tree
Hose – Origin The mango tree – Mangifera indica, L. Dicotyledoneae, Anacardiaceae – is originally from Asia (India); was brought to Brazil by the Portuguese, becoming one of the main fruit trees cultivated in the Brazilian Northeast. Mango is a tropical plant, which grows well in subtropical climate conditions.
Originally from South Asia, the mango has spread across all continents and is currently cultivated in all countries with tropical and subtropical climates.
Since its ancient cultivation in Asia, the mango has been improved throughout its history as the main tropical fruit, although in the last century it has progressed, by obtaining new varieties in several countries, outside its main centers of origin.
This led to the expansion of its commercial crop, being considered one of the fruits with the highest growth in production, living up to its nickname of ?queen of fruits?.
Hose – Distribution It is possible that the cultivation of mango originated in India, due to its domestication 4,000 years ago, from smaller fruits with little pulp.
Due to the importance of the mango in the Hindu culture and religion, according to reports before the Christian era, until the Portuguese colonization of the 15th century, its diffusion went from India to Africa and from there to other continents such as the Americas.
The introduction of the mango in America, Mexico and Panama came from the Philippines, which justifies the predominance until recently of the Manila mango, in Mexico.
In Florida, the mango was only introduced in 1861, from Cuba, and, shortly before, it would have been introduced in the West Indies, from Brazil, where the Portuguese had previously introduced it from their African colonies, in the 16th century.
Florida is currently considered a secondary center of diversity, due to the distribution of several varieties obtained there, initially from the Indian variety ?Mulgoba?, which originated ?Haden?, in 1910, and later, other current commercial varieties.
The mango crop, although still concentrated in Asia, has expanded to several countries on all continents, being important in Africa and the Americas and with a smaller presence in Europe, where it is cultivated on a small scale in Spain, in latitudes up to 37oN.
Of the 18 million annual tons of mango produced in the world, Asia accounts for 75%, the Americas 14%, Africa 10% and the remaining 1% in other areas such as Australia and Europe.
Hose – Biology The occurrence of alternate productions in mango is mainly due to its biology, in terms of flowering, pollination and setting of its fruits. Biological factors linked to the structure of flowers, in addition to physiological and climatic factors, are also important in mango fruiting.
The mango vegetation occurs in different flows within each year, depending on its intensity, climatic conditions and variety. In the State of São Paulo, mango trees vegetate from August to March, with more frequent and abundant flows in August and October, with less vegetation from December to February.
The most intense vegetations are responsible for the fruiting of the following year.
Mango can be mono- or polyembryonic in terms of its seed reproduction system, which can lead to the production of different types of embryos in terms of their genetic constitution, i.e., from monoembryonic varieties, hybrids are almost always obtained, due to the predominance of cross-pollination.
while from the polyembryonic varieties, both hybrids and nucellars can be obtained, these identical to the mother plant and predominant, since their production is in a higher percentage in relation to the zygotic ones, which are not always present, which can be an obstacle to the hybridization improvement.
The mango flowering usually takes place from June to October in São Paulo, with August flowering being the most important. As a consequence of this behavior, there are, in each production period, fruits of several stages of development.
Studies carried out in India have shown that inflorescences generally emerge from new vegetation after four or more months, and therefore the regular production of new branches is important from the point of view of fruit production.
The mango tree produces a large number of flowers, but a small percentage actually bear fruit.
Variedades com altas percentagens de flores perfeitas são usualmente as mais prolíficas.
A flor da mangueira é adaptada para a polinização por insetos, mas as abelhas não são muito atraídas por ela, sendo a polinização feita por trips e moscas, não muito eficiente.
Na Índia, foi encontrado que apenas 3 a 35% das flores hermafroditas são polinizadas. Além dos fatores biológicos citados, a chuva e o vento concorrem para a baixa polinização.
Mangueira – Classificação
A maioria das espécies de Mangifera são encontradas nativas na Península Malaia, arquipélago Indonésio, Tailândia, Indo-China e Filipinas.
O gênero Mangifera é apenas um entre outros 73 gêneros, com 850 espécies da família Anacardiaceae. A citada família é constituída, em sua maioria, de espécies tropicais, nativas na Ásia.
Além da manga, outras espécies de frutíferas cultivadas pertencem à mesma família, como algumas dos gêneros Spondias, Anacardium, Pistacea e outros.
As 69 espécies de Mangifera são nativas até uma faixa de latitude de 27o N e ao Leste das Ilhas Carolinas, sendo nativas em diversos países, mas com maior diversidade de espécies na Malásia, Bornéo e Sumatra, que é considerado o principal centro de origem.
A distribuição da maioria das espécies dá-se em áreas de diversas altitudes, desde áreas alagadas até altitudes de 1.000 m, ocasionalmente, em altitudes maiores, como o caso de algumas espécies ao norte do Trópico de Câncer.
A origem de Mangifera indica, é o Nordeste da Índia (Assam), da região fronteira Indo-Myanmar e Bangladesh, embora possa ocorrer em outras regiões.